【新】“我要卖房,可以赶走租客么?

【新】“我要卖房,可以赶走租客么?

法律

出租

经常有人询问卖房时,出租屋里有租客怎么办。以前写过一篇,但是相关的法律在2020年7月21日有了修改,所以这一篇文章里说的,依据了修改后的法律条文,并结合了当前疫情的因素。

 

先明确一点,除非有法令不准出售,房东在任何时候都有权卖房,这是房东对自己物业的处置权。有人说,房子租出去了,还在租期当中,不能卖,这是完全不对的。

 

下面就依照不同的情形,进行分析。

 

第一种情形:租约规定的租期未满时。

 

比如,1月1日起租,为期一年,12月31日结束。房东4月1日上市,有人要在6月1日交接,那么除非租客自愿提前搬走,买房的人必须承接租客,一旦过户,当即成为这个租客的房东,租约任何内容都不能改变。买房人不能期待在过户当下就入住自用。当然,如果租客只是租用地下室,买房人过户后只用地上部分,则不存在这个限制。

 

第二种情形:按月出租时。

 

如果买家买房目的是投资,买家必须承接租客,房东只关注顺利交接过户即可。买家接手后,不可更改原租约中的条款,涨租也仍按民租法的规定和管理局当年的限额进行。

 

如果买家买房目的是自住,而且要求房东解除租约,交出空房,除非租客自愿搬走,房东必须经过法律途径,才能与租客解除租约。这是最复杂,也是风险最大的一种情形。

 

【法律怎么说?】

 

Notice, purchaser personally requires unit

 

49 (1) A landlord of a residential complex that contains no more than three residential units who has entered into an agreement of purchase and sale of the residential complex may, on behalf of the purchaser, give the tenant of a unit in the residential complex a notice terminating the tenancy, if the purchaser in good faith requires possession of the residential complex or the unit for the purpose of residential occupation by,

 

(a) the purchaser;

 

(b) the purchaser’s spouse;

 

(c) a child or parent of the purchaser or the purchaser’s spouse; or

 

(d) a person who provides or will provide care services to the purchaser, the purchaser’s spouse, or a child or parent of the purchaser or the purchaser’s spouse, if the person receiving the care services resides or will reside in the building, related group of buildings, mobile home park or land lease community in which the rental unit is located.  2006, c. 17, s. 49 (1).

 

Same, condominium

 

(2) If a landlord who is an owner as defined in clause (a) or (b) of the definition of “owner” in subsection 1 (1) of the Condominium Act, 1998 owns a unit, as defined in subsection 1 (1) of that Act, that is a rental unit and has entered into an agreement of purchase and sale of the unit, the landlord may, on behalf of the purchaser, give the tenant of the unit a notice terminating the tenancy, if the purchaser in good faith requires possession of the unit for the purpose of residential occupation by,

 

(a) the purchaser;

 

(b) the purchaser’s spouse;

 

(c) a child or parent of the purchaser or the purchaser’s spouse; or

 

(d) a person who provides or will provide care services to the purchaser, the purchaser’s spouse, or a child or parent of the purchaser or the purchaser’s spouse, if the person receiving the care services resides or will reside in the building, related group of buildings, mobile home park or land lease community in which the rental unit is located.  2006, c. 17, s. 49 (2).

 

Period of notice

 

(3) The date for termination specified in a notice given under subsection (1) or (2) shall be at least 60 days after the notice is given and shall be the day a period of the tenancy ends or, where the tenancy is for a fixed term, the end of the term.  2006, c. 17, s. 49 (3).

 

Earlier termination by tenant

 

(4) A tenant who receives notice of termination under subsection (1) or (2) may, at any time before the date specified in the notice, terminate the tenancy, effective on a specified date earlier than the date set out in the landlord’s notice.  2006, c. 17, s. 49 (4).

 

Same

 

(5) The date for termination specified in the tenant’s notice shall be at least 10 days after the date the tenant’s notice is given.  2006, c. 17, s. 49 (5).

 

Compensation, notice under s. 49 (1) or (2)

 

49.1 (1) A landlord shall compensate a tenant in an amount equal to one month’s rent or offer the tenant another rental unit acceptable to the tenant if,

 

(a) the landlord gives the tenant a notice of termination of the tenancy on behalf of a purchaser under subsection 49 (1) or (2); and

 

(b) the notice of termination is given on or after the day the Protecting Tenants and Strengthening Community Housing Act, 2020 receives Royal Assent. 2020, c. 16, Sched. 4, s. 5.

 

Obligation under subs. (1)

 

(2) Despite section 18, the obligation to compensate the tenant under subsection (1) remains an obligation of the landlord who gives the notice of termination of the tenancy on behalf of the purchaser and does not become an obligation of the purchaser. 2020, c. 16, Sched. 4, s. 5.

 

【简要解释如下】

 

【1】买家必须声明购入后用于自住,不做任何出租使用。

 

【2】一定要先签妥了房产买卖合同,同时合同中载明如上条款。

 

【3】要求租客搬家的日期,必须起码60天,而且当天必须是那个租赁期的最后一天。日期计算完全依照民租法规定以及房东房客管理局的规则,特别要注意送达方式和日期计算。这是最容易出错的环节,建议咨询专业意见。

 

【4】房东必须在指定的搬家日期前,补偿租客相当于一个月的补偿金。这是新近的法律修改。

 

经常遇到下面这些具体问题。

 

问:我计划卖房,可以先赶走租客,然后再上市么?

 

答:不能。但您可以与租客先行协商(法律从来不禁止这样的商讨),如果租客答应(往往会谈一些条件),签好“解约协议”,申请到判决书。一旦超期居住,您会有驱逐租客的合法地位。如果协商不成,而且还在租期之内,那么您只能卖给投资人;如果在月租情形下,您要先与买方达成交易,才能通知租客搬家。

 

问:我现在和租客是按月散租,买房人声明自住。我向租客发了通知,租客表示不搬家,我怎么办?

 

答:那就要申请听证会了。用老百姓的话说就是要“打官司”,在听证会上,听证官凭借证据去判断租客是否必须搬家,听证官也有权考虑周边一切因素,最后决定租客搬家时间。所以我建议这样的交易,一定考虑预留相当充足的过户时间,以完成诉讼过程。尤其疫情当下,房东局听证严重滞后。如果过户期已到,租客尚未搬出,甚至连听证会都还没等到,那房东就会非常被动。

 

问:如何避免这个被动局面?

 

答:多年的经验,加之疫情下的考量,我认为上市前与租客认真商讨,寻求各自的妥协、理解、配合与包容,达至租客搬出的目的,是顺利上市,顺利参观,以至顺利过户的先决条件。

 

问:房东可以自己进行通知,上庭,驱赶么?

 

答:可以。法律并不要求房东必须聘用代理人,房东可以自己进行一切法律程序。但我提醒房东,应该考虑自己对规则的掌握、对环境的把控、对证据的收集、以及对物业出售过程的全面考量。解除租约,是民租法律非常重视的一环,听证官对解除租约的申请,往往采取非常谨慎的态度。所以做为房东,应该考虑自己是否可以应付突如其来的各种变化和挑战。特别指出,一旦行动失败,解约申请会被驳回,租客可以合法继续租住,房东房客关系也就变的不那么圆融了。更有一点,您的买卖房产的交易是否能最终完成,都会成为一个大大的未知数。

  

【本文仅对民租法的有关条款进行浅表的讨论,如有个案,请向法律专业人士咨询。本文不是我的法律意见】

于戎伟(安省律师公会 · 法律顾问)

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